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The tip of the iceberg. He will have a $35-40 million budget every year like clockwork to influence decisions.

You haven't seen anything yet. The power struggle has just begun.

Joshua S. Reichert, PhD
Director, Policy Initiatives and the Environment Program

Joshua Reichert is a social anthropologist with broad experience in environmental protection, international development and indigenous affairs. Prior to joining the Trusts in 1990, he held a variety of positions in both non-profit and governmental organizations including the National Security Archive in Washington D.C., Conservation International, the Veatch Foundation in New York, the Inter-American Foundation in Washington D.C., and the United Farmworkers of America.

Josh is the author of approximately 50 publications and has co-produced various films on the marine environment. His work has appeared in over 100 newspapers throughout the United States. He received a B.S. from the University of California at Davis and Masters and Ph.D degrees in social anthropology from Princeton University.

The environment program, under Josh's direction, promotes policies that protect the global atmosphere, conserve marine fisheries, and preserve large intact wilderness and forest ecosystems in North America. Josh also oversees our Improving Elections work.


Guest Column by Joshua Reichert

On several occasions articles have appeared in Commercial Fisheries News regarding the marine work of The Pew Charitable Trusts. Given the strong interest that we and the readers of Commercial Fisheries News have in both fish and fishermen, we thought it would be helpful to provide some information about the Trusts and our work in the marine environment.
The Pew Charitable Trusts were established in 1948 by four children of Joseph N. Pew, the founder of the Sun Oil Company. The programs of the Trusts encompass six different thematic areas including health, education, public policy, religion, culture, and the environment.
Initially, a significant portion of the Trusts' assets were invested in stock of the Sun Oil Company. Over time, however, the Trusts' shares in the Sun Oil Company were sold as part of an ongoing effort to diversify holdings. Like many foundations in the United States, the assets of the Trusts are now invested in many economic sectors.
The environmental investments of the Trusts are limited predominantly to the United States and Canada and focus on achieving three goals: protecting wilderness and old-growth forests; reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming; and restoring a healthy balance to the nation's marine environment in ways that will protect our ocean resources as well as the livelihoods of those who depend on them.
Why oceans?

Why our interest in the sea? First, because oceans cover over 70% of the surface of the Earth and are vital to our survival. They play a critical role in regulating the global climate, produce over 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and help to process, transform, and detoxify a large number of pollutants produced by human society.
More than 80% of all life on Earth is found in the sea. Over half of the world's population live within 60 kilometers of the coast and the figure is expected to increase to as much as 75% within the next several decades. Roughly 16% of the animal protein consumed in the world comes from fish, and tens of millions of people are dependent, either directly or indirectly, on fishing for their livelihood.
By all indications the oceans are in trouble. For generations, Americans have become increasingly concerned with damage to those things with which we are most familiar - the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the land around us.
We have paid far less attention to the sea despite its importance to our lives. We are only now beginning to realize what a mistake this has been.
For too long we have used the oceans as a garbage dump. We have destroyed roughly half of the world's wetlands that serve as nurseries for fish and help cleanse many of the pollutants we generate. Over two-thirds of the world's fisheries are fully exploited, overfished, or depleted. Numerous species of marine mammals, including all six species of sea turtles found in US waters, are threatened with extinction. And the vast majority of the world's coral reefs are at risk from pollution, destructive fishing practices, and global warming.
The Pew Trusts focus on a wide variety of problems affecting the sea, including pollution, the spread of invasive species, the destruction of coastal habitat, etc.
Our primary emphasis is on fishing, however, simply because unsustainable fishing practices have the biggest negative impact on the marine environment globally. Although the task of reducing the scope and severity of a number of problems related to fishing, such as excess capacity, overfishing, bycatch, and the use of particularly destructive gear types, is far from simple, these problems are fixable.
Moreover, targeted efforts to address them now rather than letting them grow worse will provide huge benefits to fish, as well as to the men and women who catch them and consumers.
No fish, no fishermen

Needless to say, declining fish populations spell trouble for fishermen, their families, and the broader communities where they live. We do not want to see the kinds of fishery collapses in the future that we have had in recent years - collapses due entirely to the failure to properly manage these fisheries in ways that will ensure an abundance of fish, a healthy marine environment, and jobs for fishermen.
The collapse of the cod fishery in Nova Scotia and the closure of Georges Bank, some of the most productive fishing grounds in the world, have brought terrible hardship to many fishing communities. There is no reason why this should happen in the future.
Reversing the current situation will not be pain free. It will require reductions in fishing effort in some parts of the country, and with some stocks. It also will require changes in fishing practices that are particularly destructive to the marine environment.
A future with no fish is also one with no fishermen. We care about both. This is the simple reason behind our efforts to help restore a healthy balance to the marine environment. Allowing the current situation to deteriorate further would be a tragedy not only for the marine environment which provides a wide array of important services for the nation as a whole, but for the many people who depend on the sea directly and indirectly for a living.

Joshua Reichert directs the Environment Program of The Pew Charitable Trusts.

Extinction, survival or recovery of large predatory fishes

We conclude that management of multi-species fisheries needs to be tailored to the most sensitive, rather than the more robust species. This requires reductions in fishing effort, reduction in bycatch mortality and protection of key areas to initiate recovery of severely depleted communities.

"PEW and Reichert?s relationship with Greenpeace is rock solid. Reichert is a frequent co-author of articles with John Passacantando, executive director of Greenpeace USA."

Grants Overview 2002

Oil Money Gone Good?
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